Factors placing a woman at risk to develop PPD

Mothers who suspect post partum difficulties can be tested by healthcare professionals by using the Edinburgh Post-Natal Depression Scale.  Women need to be aware of the following factors placing them at risk to develop PPD:

Biological risk factors include:

depression or anxiety during pregnancy

a history of depression

family history of psychiatric disorders

Psychological factors include:

self criticism/self doubt
stress related to pregnancy, childbirth, or parenting
adverse life events or prolonged stress

childhood abuse

marital disharmony

Social risk factors include:

lack of social or emotional support

low socioeconomic status or unemployment


low educational level

"Conquering Postpartum Depression: A proven plan for recovery," Ronald Rosenburg, M.D. Deborah Greening, Ph.D. James Windell, M.A., 2003